Believing the Russians would soon be in Warsaw, Polish forces went on the offensive. But the Russians stopped and the Germans went after the Poles with a vengeance. Heavy fighting occurred during the German drive to retake the buildings and narrow, twisting streets of Starowka, the Old Town. The attack progressed cautiously on the heels of an artillery bombardment. The defenders, fighting with a fearlessness born of their hopeless situation and hampered by a critical shortage of ammunition, often held their fire to the last moment in order to inflict maximum casualties, taking up the slogan "A German for every bullet!"