On 29 November 1947, the United Nations voted to set up both a Jewish and an Arab state in Palestine. This set off a series of Arab riots and attacks on Jewish settlers and businesses. British forces did little to keep the peace and as the Jews retaliated, the escalation of violence resulted in numerous casualties. The kibbutz of Kfar Etzion was only resettled by Jews four years earlier. Situate just a few miles south of Jerusalem, in territory surrounded by Arabs, and near the critical Jerusalem-Hebron road, these tiny villages perched among the rolling Hebron hills that were vital to both Jews and Arabs. On January 14th of the following year, Palestinian irregulars known as the Arab Army of Salvation (AAS) led by Abd el Qadar el-Husseini initiated one of the early military assaults of any magnitude in the so-called “Palestinian War”, a conflict which evolved into the Israeli War of Independence. Unbeknownst to Husseini, a platoon of Israeli Palmach troops were present in Kfar Etzion, preparing to ambush his AAS force.